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Data Types and Constants in C-Chapter 1

2016-10-16 12:04  
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To use any language in communication (to write/to speak), we need to understand it’s grammar first.  In the case of a programming language like C, the scenario is same as in the case of a communication language. We need to understand the grammar of C programming language first. So here begins:-

In this article we explain Data Types and Constants

The basic grammar of C can be explained through:-

Data Types Constants Variables and Keywords Operators and Operands Control structures (branching and looping) Functions Arrays Strings Pointers Structures Files Data Types

There are 4 data types in C language. They are:-

int – This data type is used to define an integer number (-….-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3….). A single integer occupies 2 bytes. char – Used to define characters. A single character occupy 1 byte. float – Used to define floating point numbers (single precision). Occupies 4 bytes. double – Used for double precision floating point numbers(double precision). Occupies 8 bytes.

Note:- Single precision and Double precision basically differs in the number of digits represented after the decimal point. Double precision number will represent more digits after the decimal point than a single precision number. Example:- Single precision – 32.75   and double precision –  32.7543

Data Types can also be classified as shown in the image below – Primitive, Derived and User Defined.

C Data Types- C programming tutorial

Image Courtesy

Primitive data types are the first form – the basic data types (int,char,float,double). Derived data types are a derivative of primitive data types known as arrays, pointer and function. User defined data types are those data types which are defined by the user/programmer himself.

Note: We will learn about Derived and user defined data types in coming chapters.

Data Type Qualifiers

Each of these data type has got qualifiers. The purpose of a qualifier is to manipulate the range of a particular data type or its size. The 4 qualifiers in C are long,short,signed and unsigned.First two long and short are called size qualifiers and the other two signed and unsigned are called sign qualifiers.

Example: int – when declared normally is of 2 bytes. If it is declared as unsigned int – then its range is from 0 to 65535. In other case, if it is declared as signed int – then its range is from (-32767 to 32768). In the case of signed int, one bit (MSB) is used to store the sign of the integer +/-. This basically means the programmer will not be able to display/store a number higher than 65535 using unsigned int. Similarly it is not possible to manipulate a number beyond -32767 or +327678 using signed int.

The qualifiers long and short are used to increase storage size of the data type.

Example: Integer data type int is normally 2 byte. If you declare it as long int – then its size will increase from 2 bytes to 4 bytes. Similarly if you declare it as short int – its size will reduce from 2 bytes to 1 byte. 

The table below describes all data types and the most commonly used qualifier combinations – with its size,range and format specifier. Note: You will learn more about the use of format specifiers in coming chapters.

Keyword

Format Specifier

Size

Date Range

char

%c

1 byte

-128 to +127

int

%d

2 bytes

0 to 255

float

%f

4 bytes

-3.4e38 to +3.4e38

double

%lf

8 bytes

-1.7e38 to +1.7e38

long int

%ld

4 bytes

-231 to +231

unsigned int

%u

2 bytes

0 to 65535

long double

%Lf

16 bytes

-3.4e38 to +3.4e38

Unsigned char

%c

1 byte

0 to 255

Constants

There are 4 types of constants in C.

Integer constants Character constants Real/Floating point constants String constants

C programming tutorialImage Courtesy

By definition, a constant is a quantity that does not change throughout the execution of a program.

Integer Constants

An integer constant is an integer quantity which contains a sequence of digits.It should not have a decimal point. Blanks and commas are not allowed within an integer constant.An integer constant can be either +ve or -ve. The constant must lie within the range of the declared data type (including qualifiers long,short etc.).

Example of valid integer constants:- 976    8987   5   -25  etc.

Example of invalid integer constants:-  78.43   7-8   89,76  etc.

An integer constant can be either Decimal, Hexa Decimal or Octal. See the table below to understand how these 3 different constants are defined in C.

Integer Type

Prefix

Suffix

Example

Hexa Decimal

Ox

  OxA7B Octal

O

  O54 Long Hexa Decimal

Ox

I or L

OxA7BL Unsigned Long Hexa Decimal

Ox

UI or UL

OxA7FUI Long Octal

O

I or L

O54L A decimal constant can contain any combination of integers from 0 through 9. Ex: 189      0      75       87 A hexa decimal constant should begin with 0X or 0x. Ex: 0x65F  or 0X7A An octal constant should begin with digit 0. It can take any digits from 0 through 7.

Note:- There is no binary integer constant in C by default. This means, you cant give a binary number directly to program by writing sth like:- 0b11001011 – which is meaningless and result in an error. How ever, programmer can add a preprocessor (which we will learn later) to accept binary numbers in a program.

Floating Point Constants

They are also known as real constants. A real constant contains a decimal point or an exponent. It can be either +ve or -ve. Commas and blank space are not allowed within a real constant.

Examples:– 254.175,      -16.47      -0.5e-7     +4.1e8

Character Constant

A character constant is a character which is enclosed in single quotes. A character constant is of size 1byte and can contain only 1 character. A character can be an alphabet like a,b,A,C etc or a special character like &,^, $, #,@ etc or a single digit from 0 through 9. It can also be an escape sequence character like space ‘ ‘ or a null character ‘\o’  or  a new line ‘\n’  etc.

Example: ‘A’       ‘a’     ‘ b’      ‘8’     ‘#’  etc.

Each character has a corresponding ASCII value. ASCII value is the numeric code of a particular character and is stored inside the machine’s character set. 

Note:- It is good that you read more about ASCII. There are basically two types of ASCII characters known as control characters and printable characters. Control characters are usually used to control a device using the program or to manipulate some logic inside a program. Control characters are not usually printed to an output device. Printable characters are usually printed to a display device or a printer.

String Constants A string constant is a collection of characters enclosed in double quotations “” It may contain alphabets, digits, special characters and blank space.

Example:   “Circuits Today123″