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# 1 Hz Pulse Frequency Generator

2018-02-26 05:07
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Here is a 1Hz pulse/frequency generator using the popular timer IC 555 which is wired as an Astable Multivibrator. The output pulses can be indicated visually by the LED. An Astable Multivibrator, often called a free-running Multivibrator, is a rectangular-wave generating circuit. Unlike the Monostable Multivibrator, this circuit does not require any external trigger to change the state of the output, hence the name free-running. This circuit can be used in applications that require clock pulses

## 1Hz Pulse Generator Circuit Diagram

An Astable Multivibrator can be produced by adding resistors and a capacitor to the basic timer IC 555.The timing during which the output is either high or low is determined by the externally connected two resistors and a capacitor.
Clock:A clock is simply a square wave i.e. alternate high & low states. Each alternate high-low forms a clock cycle with a specific frequency & duty cycle. Frequency is the number of cycles completed in 1 sec & duty cycle is the ratio of the time period of high state to the time period of the low state

We can set the 555 to work at the desired frequency by selecting the right combination of resistances & capacitance.

Frequency = 1.44 / {(R1 2R2) * C1}

Also, 555 can produce waves with duty cycle else than the 50 % cycle.

Duty Cycle = (R1 R2) * 100/ (R1 2R2)
where duty cycle= Ratio of time period when the output is 1 to the time period when the output is 0

Circuit Working

Capacitor C1 begins charging toward VCC through resistances R1 and R2 (VR). Because of this, the charging time constant is (R1 R2( VR)) C. Eventually, the threshold voltage exceeds 2/3 VCC, the comparator 1 has a high output and triggers the flip-flop so that its Q is high and the timer output is low. With Q high, the discharge transistor saturates and pin 7 grounds so that the capacitor C1 discharges through resistance R2 (VR) with a discharging time constant R2 C. With the discharging of capacitor, trigger voltage at inverting input of comparator 2 decreases. When it drops below 1/3VCC, the output of comparator 2 goes high and this reset the flip-flop so that the timer output is high. This proves the auto-transition in output from low to high and then to low .Thus the cycle repeats.

555 datasheet