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2017-08-18 14:10  
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IC1a, IC1b, and IC1c of the quad two-input NAND gate 4011 are connected as an astable multivibrator; IC1d is connected as an inverter. Terminals 3 and 11 of the 4011 produce square waves with opposite phases. The square waves, eP, at the output of IC1a, passing through differentiator C4R13, then form positive and negative pulses, e,. The dual op amps of the LM358 are used as two gated amplifiers for singles e1 and e2 and fed through terminals 2 and 6, to be displayed simultaneously on the CRO screen. The two opposite-phase square waves ep and ep are used to gate IC2a and IC2b at terminals 3 and 5 of the LM358, respectively.

Resistances R9 and R10 are preadjusted so that one op amp is driven to saturation while the other works normally as an amplifier. Thus, they will amplify signals e1 and e2 alternately, and two separate traces will be displayed on the screen. Resistance R12 can be varied to adjust the vertical separation of the two traces. Select a suitable value for C1 with switch S, and adjust the pot of Rl. The frequency of square waves can be varied from 1 to 106 cps. This process is necessary for stabilizing the waveforms displayed on the screen. A common supply of 6 V is used in the circuit.

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