# Logic Gates

## Digital Logic Gates

*This article explains the basic logic gates like NOT Gate, AND Gate, OR Gate, NAND Gate, NOR Gate, EXOR Gate and EXNOR gate with their corresponding truth tables and circuit symbols.*

Logic Gates are considered to be the basics of Boolean Logic. To know more about Boolean Logic click on the link below.

TAKE A LOOK :BOOLEAN LOGIC

To know about the application of logic gates, click on the links below

TAKE A LOOK :HALF ADDER AND FULL ADDER

TAKE A LOOK :FLIP FLOPS

There are mainly 7 types of logic gates that are used in expressions. By combining them in different ways, you will be able to implement all types of digital components. Take a look at each basic logic gate and their operation.

A Logic Gate is assigned as an elementary building block of digital circuits. Logic gate is considered as a device which has the ability to produce one output level with the combinations of input levels. There are seven basic types of logic gates:

- AND GATEOR GATENOT GATENAND GATENOR GATEEXCLUSIVE-OR GATE (X-OR) GATEEXCLUSIVE-NOR (X-NOR) GATE

The reason for which the computers are capable of performing complex operation is due to the interconnection of these logic gates. Logic gates are implemented by using transistors, diodes,relays, optics and molecules or even by several mechanical elements. Due to this reason logic gates can also be considered as electronic circuits. The logic gates can be build up in a wide variety forms such as large-scale integrated circuits (LSI), very large-scale integrated circuits (VLSI) and also in small-scale integrated circuits (SSI). Here the inputs and output of all the gates of integrated devices can be accessible and also the external connections are made available to them just like discrete logic gates.

Inputs and outputs of logic gates are in two levels termed as HIGH and LOW, or TRUE and FALSE, or ON and OFF, or simply 1 and 0. A table which list out the combination of input variables and the corresponding output variables is termed as “TRUTH TABLE”. It explains how the logic circuit output responds to various combinations of logic levels at the inputs. Here we are following level logic, in which the voltage levels are represented as logic 1 and logic 0. Level logic is of two types such as positive logic or negative logic. In the positive logic system, higher of the two voltage levels are represented as 1 and lower of the two voltage levels are represented as 0. But in the negative logic system, higher of the two voltage levels are represented as 0 and lower of the two voltage levels are represented as 1. While considering the transistor-transistor logic (TTL), the lower state is assumed to be zero volts (0V) and the higher state is considered as five volts positive ( 5V).

AND GATE

An AND gate requires two or more inputs and produce only one output. The AND gate produces an output of logic 1 state when each of the inputs are at logic 1 state and also produces an output of logic 0 state even if any of its inputs are at logic 0 state. The symbol for AND operation is ‘.’, or we use no symbol for representing. If the inputs are of X and Y, then the output can be expressed as Z=XY. The?AND gate is so named because, if 0 is called “false” and 1 is called “true,” the gate performs in the same way as the logical “and” operator. The AND gate is also named as all or nothing gate. The logic symbols and truth tables of two-input and three-input AND gates are given below.

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