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# Voltage Multipliers

2018-01-27 07:32
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Voltage multiplier is a modified capacitor filter circuit that delivers a dc voltage twice or rnore times of the peak value (amplitude) of the input ac voltage. Such power supplies are used for high-voltage and low-current devices such as cathode-ray tubes (the picture tubes in TV receivers, oscilloscopes and computer display). Here we will consider half-wave voltage doubler, full-wave voltage doubler and voltage tripler and quadrupler.

### Half-Wave Voltage Doubler

The circuit of a half-wave voltage doubler is given in figure shown below. During the positive half cycle of the ac input, voltage, diode D1being forward biased conducts (diode D2does not con-duct because it is reverse-biased) and charges capacitor C1upto peak values of secondary voltage Vsmaxwith the polar-ity, as marked in figure shown below.

Half-wave voltage doubler

During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage diode D2gets forward biased and conducts charging capacitor C2. For the negative half cycle, the lower end of the transformer secondary is positive while upper end is negative. The polarity of the capacitor C-2has also been marked in the figure. Now starting from the bottom of the transformer secondary and moving clockwise and applying Kirchhoffs voltage law to the outer loop we have

-Vsmaxâ€“ Vc1Vc2= 0

Or

Vc2= VsmaxVc1= Vsmax Vsmax = 2Vsmax= Twice the peak value of the transformer secondary voltage. (Since Vc1= Vsmax)

During the next positive half-.cycle diode D2is reverse-biased and so acts as an open and capacitor C2discharges through the load If there is no load across the capacitor, C2both capacitors stay charged – C1to Vsmaxand C2to 2Vsmax. If, as expected there is a load connected to the output terminals of the voltage doubler, the capacitor C2discharges a little bit and consequently the voltage across capacitor C2drops slightly. The capacitor C2gets recharged again in the next half-cycle. The ripple frequency in this case will be the signal frequency (that is, 50 Hz for supply mains.)

### Full-Wave Voltage Doubler

The circuit diagram for a full-wave voltage doubler is given in the figure shown below. During the positive cycle of the ac input voltage, diode D1gets forward biased and so conducts charging the capacitor C1to a peak voltage Vsmaxwith polarity indicated in the figure, while diode D2is reverse-biased and does not conduct.During the negative half-cycle, diode D2being forward biased conducts and charges the capacitor C2with polarity shown in the figure while diode D1does not conduct. With no load connected to the output terminals, the output voltage will be equal to sum of voltages across capacitors C1and C2that is, VC1VC2or (VsmaxVsmax) or 2 Vsmax. When the load is connected to the output terminals, the output voltage VLwill be somewhat less than 2 Vsmax. The input voltage and output voltage waveforms are also shown in the figure below.

Full-wave voltage doubler

Take a look : Comparison Between Half-wave and Full-wave Voltage Doublers

The half-wave voltage doubler, shown in the earlier figure can be extended to provide any multiple of the peak input voltage (that is, 3 Vsmax, 4 Vsmaxor 5 Vsmax), as illustrated in the figure shown below. It is obvious from the pattern of the circuit connections how additional diodes and capacitors are to be connected to provide output voltage, 5,6,7 or 8 times the peak input voltage from a supply transformer of rating only Vsmax, and each diode in the circuit of PIV rating 2 Vsmax. If load is small and the capacitors have little leakage, extremely high dc voltages can be obtained from such a circuit using many sections to step-up the dc voltage.

In operation capacitor C1is charged through diode Dlto a peak value of transformer secondary voltage, Vsmaxduring first positive half-cycle of the ac input voltage. During the negative half cycle capacitor C2is charged to twice the peak voltage 2 Vsdeveloped by the sum of voltages across capacitor C1and the transformer secondary. During the second positive half-cycle, diode D3conducts and the voltage across capacitor C2charges the capacitor C3to the same 2 Vgmaxpeak voltage. During the negative half-cycle diodes D2and D4conduct allowing capacitor C3to charge capacitor C4to peak voltage 2 VS max. From the fogure shown below it is obvious that the voltage across capacitor C2is 2 Vs max, across capacitors C1and C3it is 3 Vsmaxand across capacitors C2and C4it is 4 Vsmax.

If additional diodes (each diode of PIV rating 2 Vsmax) and capacitors (each capacitor of voltage rating 2 Vsmax) are used, each capacitor will be charged to 2 Vs max. Measuring from the top of the transformer secondary winding (figure below) will give odd multiples of Vgmaxat the output, while measuring from the bottom of transformer secondary winding will give even multiples of the peak voltage, Vsmax.